NOAA Summit Clean Air Program

PI Institute/Department Email
Butler, James
National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, Global Monitoring Division
Award#(s)
NOAASummit
Funding Agency
US\Federal\DOC\NOAA
Program Manager Funding Agency Email
Mercer, Dr. Jennifer
NSF, Office of Polar Programs
Discipline(s)
Meteorology and Climate
Science Summary
Researchers at NOAA’s Earth System Research Lab (ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) conduct continuous measurements of atmospheric properties at Summit Station to better understand the Arctic climate system and contribute to the Earth monitoring mission of their worldwide observation network. GMD’s mission it to acquire, evaluate, and make available accurate, long-term records of atmospheric gases, aerosol particles, clouds, and surface radiation in a manner that allows the causes and consequences of change to be understood. GMD’s current measurements at Summit include: 1. Halocarbon and other Atmospheric Trace Gases (HATS) Flasks: weekly to biweekly collection of air samples, analyzed in the U.S. (Boulder, CO) for trace gases (50+ species measured) that are important to global halocarbon chemistry, such as ozone-depleting CFCs, oxidation studies, and stratospheric ozone. These measurements have been ongoing since 2004. 2. Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network (GGGRN) Flasks: weekly collection of air samples, analyzed in the U.S. (Boulder, CO) for gases (30+ species measured) relevant to the global carbon cycle, including CO2 and methane. This sampling was first performed during several winters in the period 1997-2002 and has been performed year-round since 2003. 3. In-situ Aerosol Sampling: observations of aerosol optical properties to determine aerosol radiative effects. These measurements were initiated in 2003, with the instrument suite upgraded in 2009 and 2017. 4. Surface Ozone: observations of tropospheric ozone concentration. These measurements were taken from 2000 to 2002, and then from 2003 onward. 5. Surface Meteorology: observations of surface meteorological properties to support science, flight operations, and general station activities. These measurements have been ongoing since summer 2005.
Logistics Summary

For this NOAA program, on-site science technicians maintain a suite of year-round measurements on behalf of NOAA researchers. These measurements began in the mid 1990s and are ongoing (part of GEOSummit since 2003). NOAA representatives visit Summit Station annually to install / maintain instruments, train science technicians, and conduct measurements. Starting in 2005, NOAA began staffing science technician rotations as Summit Station during the winter phases. Beginning in 2008 NOAA increased staffing to be year-round. Monitoring projects on site include: carbon cycle gas sampling flasks, black carbon measurement, halocarbons and trace species flask sampling, meteorology suite, stratospheric ozonesondes, aerosol measurements, surface ozone measurements, and an in-situ gas chromatograph for greenhouse gas measurements. NOAA will continue to collaborate with Georgia Tech on activities related to the aerosol instrument suite that was previously installed and maintained by the Bergin project (NSF grant #1023227). NOAA program highlights at Summit Station over the last few years include: - During summer 2007 a four channel gas chromatograph was added to the suite of NOAA instruments. - During summer 2008, in addition to ongoing work, researchers extended the ozonesonde experiment by launching about 20 additional balloons in April and again in July for an intensive field campaign. - In February 2009, a NOAA staff member flew to Summit Station via the Twin Otter on a crew turnover flight to repair an instrument, departing the station on the return flight approximately one week later. - During August 2009, the NOAA field coordinator attended an on-site planning meeting. - In 2010, in addition to ongoing measurements, CPS staff relocated the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory (TAWO) and instrument tower (where the NOAA instruments are mounted) to approximately 1 km south of Summit Station. - During 2011 and 2012 the NOAA field coordinator made a routine visit to Summit Station for instrument maintenance. - During 2013 the TAWO building was lifted and the TAWO tower was extended. The on-site science technicians coordinated with the Boulder-based NOAA team to support the instrumentation during the transition. - Also during 2013, the NOAA ESRL GMD deputy director traveled to Summit Station in late June for a site visit. During 2014, one NOAA researcher will travel to Summit in June for maintenance and upgrade activities. NOAA will continue to hire and deploy science technicians for all the three staffing phases. During 2015, three researchers will travel to Summit in June, July, and August for maintenance and upgrade activities. These include upgrading the meteorological sensor suite, assisting with the science impacts from the TAWO facility raise project, and performing a quality control visit to evaluate the setup of the aerosol measuring suite of instrumentation. In 2016, NOAA researchers will travel to Summit to relocate the meteorological suite of instruments from the TAWO tower to the 50m tower, install broadband solar radiometers to inter-compare with existing solar measurements from Summit station, reinstall instrument inlets on the TAWO inlet mast, and potentially reconfigure the TAWO interior layout of instruments to optimize the available footprint. Additionally, NOAA is planning to modify the CATS GC to eliminate methane containing P5 carrier gas to directly address concerns about elevated methane levels within the facility. In 2017 a field team of two will demobilize a portion of the NOAA project activities including the ozonesonde system and materials, the CATS GC, and the solar radiation suite (contingent on the timing of calibrated radiometers being returned by the Steffen/NASAAWS project). The field team will also recover components of the meteorological suite from the failed 50m tower and re-install met instruments on the TAWO tower which was relocated 80m south TAWO during June 2017. The science technician position provided via inter-agency transfer will be ended on or about 28 August 2017. In 2018 no personnel will travel to Summit under the grant but the instruments continue to run. One NOAA representative will travel to Summit in 2019. Efforts during the visit will include diagnostic work on the sonic anemometer, general maintenance of the instrumentation suite, and inspection of modifications to the meteorology tower and TAWO instrument space. They will also transfer the meteorology system to the new network access point at the Meteorology Tower. In 2020 and 2021, no science team travel will occur. Ongoing NOAA science measurements will continue at Summit Station. Science technicians will perform routine monitoring, maintenance, calibration, and sampling, as well as provide on-call support when issues arise. In addition, the science technicians will perform the annual lift of NOAA meteorology equipment on the Met Tower to compensate for snow accumulation. Also in 2021, the team will send an additional water-based condensation particle counter to Summit Station to be installed at TAWO by Battelle ARO science technicians and will operate for one year.

Battelle ARO will coordinate ANG flights for passengers and cargo; Summit user days; KISS user days; space, power and network access in the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory (TAWO) and on the Meteorology Tower; and year-round science technician support. The PIs will make all other arrangements and pay for them through the grant.
Season Field Site Date In Date Out #People
1997
Greenland - Summit
0
1998
Greenland - Summit
0
2000
Greenland - Summit
0
2001
Greenland - Summit
0
2002
Greenland - Summit
0
2003
Greenland - Summit
2
2004
Greenland - Summit
1
2005
Greenland - Summit
4
2006
Greenland - Summit
3
2007
Greenland - Summit
3
2008
Greenland - Summit
6
2009
Greenland - Summit
3
2010
Greenland - Summit
8
2011
Greenland - Summit
6
2012
Greenland - Summit
6
2013
Greenland - Summit
7
2014
Greenland - Summit
4
2015
Greenland - Summit
5
2016
Greenland - Summit
3
2017
Greenland - Summit
2
2019
Greenland - Summit
1
2020
0
2021
Greenland - Summit
0